Managing Migration (organised crime as cover for migrant smuggling and THB)

Akuila Ratu Head of Secretariat /Pacific Immigration Development Community, Samoa
Amanda Read National Operational lead, Safeguarding & Modern Slavery /UK Border Force
Iliuta Cumpanasu Lead Evaluator /FRONTEX
Pier Rossi-Longhi Senior Regional Immigration and Border Governance Specialist /IOM

It is well established that organised crime groups are able to adapt and evolve to use any weakness or vulnerability at our borders as a cover for nefarious activities. The migration crises we are experiencing on the southern borders of the US and EU offer prime opportunities for criminal activities, including smuggling migrants for money, which is generally a voluntary transaction but leaves migrants dangerously exposed to death, injury and abuse, and THB, which is the forced trafficking of persons. Regions of Asia are also experiencing unprecedented levels of THB, often for the vice trade. What are the latest challenges with migrant smuggling and THB, how do these two crimes differ in terms of methodology and how does can the international community combat cross-border crimes or irregular migration?